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Ulesjae Ukudrjavcevl
Ulesjae Ukudrjavcevl

Amaranthus Spinosus

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Amaranthus spinosus, commonly known as the spiny amaranth,[2] spiny pigweed, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth, is a plant that is native to the tropical Americas, but is present on most continents as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed.[citation needed] It can be a serious weed of rice cultivation in Asia.[3]

In the folk medicine of India, the ash of fruits of Amaranthus spinosus is used for jaundice.[7][medical citation needed] Water extracts from its roots and leaves have been used as a diuretic in Vietnam.[8][medical citation needed]

Introduction: Depressive disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disorder, which affects 21% of the world population. The presently using drugs can impose a variety of side-effects including cardiac toxicity, hypopiesia, sexual dysfunction, body weight gain, and sleep disorder. During the last decade, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic effects of natural products on mental disorders. Amaranthus spinosus was investigation for antidepressant activity.

Methods: Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (MEAS) was investigated by using Forced swimming test (FST) and Tail suspension test (TST) models. Escitalopram and Imipramine were used as reference standards.

Spiny amaranth, thorny amaranth Plants glabrous or sparsely pubescent in the distal younger parts of stems and branches. Stems erect or sometimes ascending proximally, much-branched and bushy, rarely nearly simple, 0.3-1(-2) m; each node with paired, divergent spines (modified bracts) to 1.5(-2.5) cm. Leaves: petiole equaling or longer than blade; blade rhombic-ovate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 3-10(-15) 1.5-6 cm, base broadly cuneate, margins entire, plane or slightly undulate, apex acute or subobtuse to indistinctly emarginate, mucronulate. Inflorescences simple or compound terminal staminate spikes and axillary subglobose mostly pistillate clusters, erect or with reflexed or nodding tips, usually green to silvery green. Bracts of pistillate flowers lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, shorter than tepals, apex attenuate. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, obovate-lanceolate or spatulate-lanceolate, equal or subequal, 1.2-2 mm, apex mucronate or short-aristate; styles erect or spreading; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers: often terminal or in proximal glomerules; tepals 5, equal or subequal, 1.7-2.5 mm; stamens 5. Utricles ovoid to subglobose, 1.5-2.5 mm, membranaceous proximally, wrinkled and spongy or inflated distally, irregularly dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds black, lenticular or subglobose-lenticular, 0.7-1 mm diam., smooth, shiny.Flowering summer-fall. Waste places, fields, roadsides, railroads, barnyards, overgrazed pastures, other disturbed habitats; 0-700 m; introduced; Man., Ont.; Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; introduced nearly worldwide.Amaranthus spinosus is native to lowlands in tropical America; at present it is a pantropical weed that also occurs in some warm-temperate regions.Amaranthus spinosus, or its ancestral taxon, probably gave rise to the allopolyploid A. dubius by hybridization with some species of the A. hybridus aggregate (see above). Section Centrusa probably occupies a basal position, at least for the clade of subg. Amaranthus sect. Amaranthus, and probably for some representatives of subg. Acnida as currently outlined. Recent results of sequencing the ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 15 species of Amaranthus occurring in China also suggest the basal position of A. spinosus among the studied species (Song B. H. et al. 2000). These results also confirm a profound divergence between subgenera Amaranthus and Albersia; the latter is called "sect. Paucestamen" by the above authors. Data


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